Perpetrators of crime can be found to be not criminally responsible (NCR) when their criminal behaviour is due to a diagnosed mental illness. The crime committed becomes known as the "index offence". They are then managed by the Ontario Review Board (ORB). Their release is determined by the ORB based upon an assessment of whether the individual constitutes a "significant threat to the safety of the public". The options for disposition include an absolute discharge, a discharge subject to conditions, or continued confinement in a hospital. Throughout the process, the offender is to be treated with dignity and afforded the maximum liberties compatible with the goals of public protection and fairness to the NCR accused found in Part. XX.1 of the Criminal Code (the "Code").
Section 672.54(a) of the Code directs that where an NCR accused is “not a significant threat to the safety of the public” he or she must be discharged absolutely. Section 672.5401 defines a “significant threat to the safety of the public” as “a risk of serious physical or psychological harm to members of the public – including any victim of or witness to the offence, or any person under the age of 18 years – resulting from conduct that is criminal in nature but not necessarily violent".
The Code does not create a presumption of dangerousness. It does not impose a burden on the NCR individual seeking release to prove a lack of dangerousness. The court or Review Board must make a disposition “that is the least onerous and least restrictive to the accused”. It becomes clear then that unless it makes a positive finding on the evidence that the NCR accused poses a significant threat to the safety of the public, the court or Review Board must order an absolute discharge.
The authority for these statements of the law came from the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) in Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute). The steps and process were set out by the SCC in some detail as follows:
An appeal from the decision of the ORB is made under Part XX.1 of the Code to the Ontario Court of Appeal (ONCA). The appeals are most often made by the NCR person seeking a release. The standard of the review on such an appeal is found in s. 672.78(1) of the Code. An ORB decision is to be accorded deference, but the ONCA has the power to set aside the decision if it is unreasonable, is not supported by the evidence, it is based on a wrong decision on a question of law, or there was a miscarriage of justice. The reasonableness of the ORB decision must be evaluated by considering the reasons in the context in which the decision was made. As stated by the ONCA in Re Wall:
The reasons for the Board’s decision and the substantive decision reached by the Board must be considered together in determining whether an acceptable and defensible outcome has been reached, keeping in mind the need to protect the liberty of the NCR accused as much as possible, while also protecting society.
Further, as the ONCA stated in Re Carrick,
he “significant threat” standard is an onerous one. An NCR accused is not to be detained on the basis of mere speculation. The Board must be satisfied as to both the existence and gravity of the risk of physical or psychological harm posed by the appellant in order to deny him an absolute discharge.
Input from a lawyer can assist health professionals in giving evidence at assessment or capacity hearings. At Wise Health Law, we also have an established network of criminal lawyers with whom we work. For the convenience of our clients, we have offices in both Toronto and Oakville, Ontario, and are easily accessible. Contact us online, or at 416-915-4234 for a consultation.
In December 2019, Ontario’s Attorney General introduced Bill 161, the Smarter and Stronger Justice Act (the “Act”), which became law on July 8, 2020. The Act hopes to simplify a complex and outdated justice system by bringing changes to how legal aid services are delivered, how class actions are handled, and how court processes are administered.
Of note, the Act has amended the Judicial Review Procedures Act (JRPA) to establish new rules as to when an application for judicial review may be brought.
Any decisions made on or after July 8, 2020 are now subject to a 30-day limit for bringing an application for judicial review unless another Act provides otherwise. Courts, however, retain powers to extend the time for making an application for judicial review if satisfied that there are apparent grounds for relief and that no prejudice or hardship will be incurred by the delay. Before these amendments, the JRPA did not set out any time limits for bringing an application, but courts had powers to extend the time to bring an application if another Act prescribed the limit.
In early August 2020, the Federal Minister of Health granted an exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) to four terminally ill Canadians to use psilocybin in their end of life care.
Psilocybin is one of the active ingredients/chemicals in “magic mushrooms,” the other is psilocin. Both psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances under Schedule III of the CDSA. The sale, possession, production, etc. are prohibited unless authorized for clinical trial or research purposes under Part J of the Food and Drug Regulations. Both have been illegal in Canada since 1974. According to Health Canada, there are no approved therapeutic products containing psilocybin in Canada. However, the purified active ingredient, i.e. psilocybin, is being studied in supervised clinical settings for its potential to treat various conditions such as anxiety and depression.