In December 2019, Ontario’s Attorney General introduced Bill 161, the Smarter and Stronger Justice Act (the “Act”), which became law on July 8, 2020. The Act hopes to simplify a complex and outdated justice system by bringing changes to how legal aid services are delivered, how class actions are handled, and how court processes are administered.
Of note, the Act has amended the Judicial Review Procedures Act (JRPA) to establish new rules as to when an application for judicial review may be brought.
Any decisions made on or after July 8, 2020 are now subject to a 30-day limit for bringing an application for judicial review unless another Act provides otherwise. Courts, however, retain powers to extend the time for making an application for judicial review if satisfied that there are apparent grounds for relief and that no prejudice or hardship will be incurred by the delay. Before these amendments, the JRPAdid not set out any time limits for bringing an application, but courts had powers to extend the time to bring an application if another Act prescribed the limit.
The time limit and the courts’ powers to extend the limit under the JRPA are the same as the one under the Federal Courts Act. Applicants are responsible for consulting the relevant statute(s) to review the time limits and take the necessary steps to ensure their application will not be dismissed.
The Role of Judicial Review
Judicial Review is the mechanism by which courts supervise the processes and decisions of administrative decision-makers to preserve the rule of law. Of relevance to health care professionals, administrative decision-makers include the Colleges’ statutory committees (e.g., the Discipline Committee) and the Health Professions Appeal and Review Board. The function of judicial review is to ensure that an administrative process is legal (i.e., within bounds of the law), reasonable, and fair in both process and outcome.
In Ontario, judicial review comes in two forms: applications for judicial review and statutory appeals from administrative decision-makers.
To know whether to bring an application for judicial review, it is important to understand what relief the court can order. The remedies from judicial review are limited but include:
Standard of Review
The standard of review refers to the degree of scrutiny the court will apply in examining the substance of the decision under review. There are two standards of review: reasonableness and correctness. Determining which standard of review is applicable to a case can be complicated, and we recommend seeking legal advice on this issue.
If the court is reviewing something on a reasonableness standard, it will be more deferential to the decision-maker. Generally, the court will uphold the decision if it falls within a range of possible, acceptable outcomes which are defensible in fact and law. There may be more than one reasonable decision and even though the court may make a different decision than the decision-maker, if the decision itself is reasonable it will be upheld.
Application of the correctness standard is rarer than the reasonableness standard. Under the correctness standard of review, the court will not be deferential. The court will make its own determination of the correct outcome.
As noted above, the court will not only look at the substance of the decision but how a decision is made. Procedural fairness will include things like if parties were given an opportunity to have their case heard before the decision-maker decides on the matter. The “amount of fairness” a party receives is case-dependent, and we recommend seeking legal advice specific to your circumstances.
Given the new general time limit under the JRPA, parties considering judicial review should seek legal advice as soon as possible after receiving the decision of the administrative tribunal to ensure that they are not out of time to bring an application.Note: At Wise Health Law, we have extensive experience in navigating judicial reviews and expertise in administrative law. Our blog is not a substitute for legal advice tailored to your specific situation. We would be pleased to assist you.
In early August 2020, the Federal Minister of Health granted an exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) to four terminally ill Canadians to use psilocybin in their end of life care.
Psilocybin is one of the active ingredients/chemicals in “magic mushrooms,” the other is psilocin. Both psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances under Schedule III of the CDSA. The sale, possession, production, etc. are prohibited unless authorized for clinical trial or research purposes under Part J of the Food and Drug Regulations. Both have been illegal in Canada since 1974. According to Health Canada, there are no approved therapeutic products containing psilocybin in Canada. However, the purified active ingredient, i.e. psilocybin, is being studied in supervised clinical settings for its potential to treat various conditions such as anxiety and depression.